Data on self-reported alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline and updated approximately every 4 years, whereas
stroke and potential confounder data were updated at baseline and biennially.
Strokes were classified according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria .
The authors found that the risk of total stroke is significantly lower among light-to-moderate consumers of alcohol than
among subjects reporting no alcohol intake.
In comparison with non-drinkers, the estimated risk was - 17-21% lower for women averaging up to 15 grams of alcohol per
day (one drink/day by US definitions of approximately 14 grams of alcohol, or two UK units of 8g).
For consumers of larger amounts of alcohol, the risk of stroke increased at levels of consumption above 38g.
Data on the pattern of drinking (regularly, binge, etc.) were not reported. Among these predominantly light drinkers,
there were no differences between effects on the risk of the most common type of stroke, ischemic stroke (due to atherosclerotic obstruction
of a artery or an embolic clot) or the less-common hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding into the brain).
The results, with full adjustment for other factors that may affect risk, suggest a "J-shaped" curve for total stroke,
with reductions in risk for light-to-moderate drinking and possibly an increase with greater amounts.
In this study, the point at which the risk of women having a stroke exceeding that of non-drinkers was about 38 grams of
alcohol per day (about 3 typical "drinks").
The frequency of use of hormones, multivitamins, physical activity, high cholesterol, and family history of myocardial
infarction were very similar across categories of alcohol intake, suggesting that the women who consumed varying amounts of alcohol were
generally similar in these characteristics to non-drinkers.
The findings of lower BMI, increased smoking, greater HDL-cholesterol ( good cholesterol), and lower risk of diabetes
with increasing alcohol consumption were expected, and further suggest that the assessments of alcohol were reasonably accurate.
The study supports many previous reports from observational epidemiologic studies that have shown a reduction in risk of
the ischemic type of stroke from moderate alcohol intake. Some, but not all previous studies, show an increase in hemorrhagic stroke for any
amounts of alcohol, but that was not seen in this study, possibly because there were few heavy drinkers in this group of nurses.
A standard drink is equal to 13.7 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. Generally, this amount of pure alcohol is found in
> 12-ounces of beer.
> 8-ounces of malt liquor.
> 5-ounces of wine.
> 1.5-ounces or a shot of 80-proof distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, or whiskey).
● Is beer or wine safer to drink than liquor?
No. One 12-ounce beer has about the same amount of alcohol as one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5-ounce shot of liquor. It
is the amount of alcohol consumed that affects a person most, not the type of alcoholic drink.
● What does moderate drinking mean?
There is no one definition of moderate drinking, but generally the term is used to describe a lower-risk pattern of drinking. According to the
Dietary Guidelines for Americans,1 drinking in moderation is defined as having
no more than 1 drink per day for women and no more than 2 drinks per day for men. This definition is referring to the amount consumed on any
single day and is not intended as an average over several days.
Research grows saying
what we eat, drink impacts dementia
November 2, 2006
Financial Relief for Volkswagen Diesel Owners
You may be eligible for money damages if you owned or leased one of these VW, Porsche or Audi vehicles.
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