Processed and Unprocessed Red Meats Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes; Nuts Lower Risk
One hot dog or sausage or two slices of bacon processed red meat - associated with a 51% increased diabetes risk
Aug. 18, 2011 A new study of over 400,000 participants by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers finds a
strong association between the consumption of red meat - particularly when the meat is processed - and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes,
which strikes over 1 out of 4 senior citizens. The study also shows that replacing red meat with healthier proteins, such as low-fat dairy,
nuts, or whole grains, can significantly lower the risk.
Previous studies have indicated that eating processed red meats increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the
seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. Risks
from unprocessed meats have been less clear.
For instance, in 2010, HSPH researchers found no clear evidence of an association between eating unprocessed meats and
increased risk for either coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes, but that study was based on smaller samples than the current study, and
the researchers recommended further study of unprocessed meats.
Another HSPH study in 2010 linked eating red meat with an increased risk of heart disease - which is strongly linked to
diabetes - but did not distinguish between processed and unprocessed red meats.
This new study - the largest of its kind in terms of sample size and follow-up years - finds that both unprocessed and
processed meats pose a type 2 diabetes risk, thus helping to clarify the issue.
Senior Citizens a Target of Diabetes
Age 65 years or older
● 10.9 million, or 26.9% of all people in this age group have diabetes
● Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.
Heart disease and stroke
● In 2004, heart disease was noted on 68% of diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older.
● In 2004, stroke was noted on 16% of diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older.
● Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes.
● The risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher among people with diabetes.
In addition, this study is among the first to estimate the risk reduction associated with substituting healthier protein
choices for red meat.
Researchers led by An Pan, research fellow, HSPH Department of Nutrition, and senior author Frank Hu, professor of
nutrition and epidemiology at HSPH - analyzed questionnaire responses from -
● 37,083 men followed for 20 years in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study;
● 79,570 women followed for 28 years in the Nurses' Health Study I; and
● 87,504 women followed for 14 years in the Nurses' Health Study II.
They also conducted an updated meta-analysis, combining data from their new study with data from existing studies that
included a total of 442,101 participants, 28,228 of whom developed type 2 diabetes during the study.
After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the researchers found that
a daily 100-gram serving of unprocessed red meat (about the size of a deck of cards) was associated with a 19% increased risk of type 2
They also found that one daily serving of half that quantity of processed meat - 50 grams (for example, one hot dog or
sausage or two slices of bacon) - was associated with a 51% increased risk.
"Clearly, the results from this study have huge public health implications given the rising type 2 diabetes epidemic and
increasing consumption of red meats worldwide," said Hu. "The good news is that such troubling risk factors can be offset by swapping red meat
for a healthier protein."
The researchers found that, for an individual who eats one daily serving of red meat -
● substituting one serving of nuts per day was associated with a 21% lower risk of type 2 diabetes;
● substituting low-fat dairy, a 17% lower risk; and
● substituting whole grains, a 23% lower risk.
Based on these results, the researchers advise that consumption of processed red meat - like hot dogs, bacon, sausage,
and deli meats, which generally have high levels of sodium and nitrites - should be minimized and unprocessed red meat should be reduced.
If possible, they add, red meat should be replaced with healthier choices, such as nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy
products, fish, or beans.
Worldwide, diabetes has reached epidemic levels, affecting nearly 350 million adults. In the U.S. alone, more than 11% of
adults over age 20 - 25.6 million people - have the disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most have type 2
diabetes, which is primarily linked to obesity, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet.
"Our study clearly shows that eating both unprocessed and processed red meat - particularly processed - is associated
with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes," said Pan.
He noted that the 2010 U.S. dietary guidelines continue to lump red meat together with fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, seeds,
beans, and soy products in the "protein foods" group. But since red meat appears to have significant negative health effects - increased risk
of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even total mortality, as suggested by several recent studies - Pan suggested the guidelines should
distinguish red meat from healthier protein sources and promote the latter instead.
Support for the study was provided by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive
and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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