and Medicine for Seniors
Type 2 Diabetes patients should exercise after
Study is particularly helpful for health care
providers who have patients who exercise every day but are not seeing
18, 2015 – Individuals with Type 2 diabetes have heightened amounts of
sugars and fats in their blood, which increases their risks for
cardiovascular diseases such as strokes and heart attacks. Exercise is a
popular prescription for those suffering from the symptoms of Type 2
diabetes, but most research has focused the benefits of different
exercise methods. A news study, however, decided to look at the
difference in benefits based on the time of the exercise. Doing it after
dinner is best, they say.
“This study shows that it is not just the intensity
or duration of exercising that is important but also the timing of when
it occurs,” said Jill Kanaley, professor in the
University of Missouri
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology.
“Results from this study show that resistance
exercise has its most powerful effect on reducing glucose and fat levels
in one’s blood when performed after dinner.”
More than 23 percent of senior citizens suffer with
type 2 diabetes. (See more information below news story.)
Kanaley and her colleagues studied a group of obese
individuals with Type 2 diabetes. On one occasion, participants
performed resistance exercises before eating dinner. During another
visit, participants exercised 45 minutes after eating dinner. All
participants consumed a moderate carbohydrate dinner on the evenings of
Participants performed resistance exercises such as
leg curls, seated calf raises and abdominal crunches.
Compared to levels on a non-exercise day, Kanaley
found that the participants who exercised before dinner were able to
only reduce the sugar levels in their blood. Participants who exercised
after dinner, however, were able to reduce both sugar and fat levels.
Kanaley said her research is particularly helpful
for health care providers who have patients who exercise every day but
are not seeing benefits.
“Knowing that the best time to exercise is after a
meal could provide health care professionals with a better understanding
of how to personalize exercise prescriptions to optimize health
benefits,” Kanaley said.
Kanaley also found that improvements in
participants’ blood sugar and fat levels were short-lived and did not
extend to the next day.
She also suggests individuals practice daily
resistance exercise after dinner to maintain improvements.
“Individuals who exercise in the morning have
usually fasted for 10 hours beforehand,” Kanaley said. “Also, it is
natural for individuals’ hormone levels to be different at different
times of day, which is another factor to consider when determining the
best time to exercise.”
In the future, Kanaley said she plans to research
how exercising in the morning differs from exercising after dinner and
how individuals’ hormone levels also affect exercise results.
The study, “Post-dinner
resistance exercise improves postprandial risk factors more effectively
than pre-dinner resistance exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes,”
was published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.
Faculty members in the
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology have
appointments in MU’s
College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources,
College of Human Environmental Sciences and
School of Medicine.
About Diabetes (MedlinePlus)
Diabetes expected to increase in U.S. due to booming population
of senior citizens
Diabetes is a disease in which
your blood glucose, or
blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the
foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get
into your cells to give them energy.
type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With
type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not
make or use insulin well.
Without enough insulin, the
glucose stays in your blood. You can also have
prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than
normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having
prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2
Over time, having too much glucose
in your blood can cause
It can damage your
Diabetes can also cause
stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can
also get diabetes, called
A blood test can show if you have
diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal
plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor
your glucose level and take
Type 2 diabetes is more common in
older people, especially in people who are overweight, and
occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, some
Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islander
Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos. National survey data in 2007
indicate a range in the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed
diabetes in various populations ages 20 years or older:
>> Age 60 years or older:
12.2 million, or 23.1 percent, of all people in this age group
>> Age 20 years or older:
23.5 million, or 10.7 percent, of all people in this age group
12.0 million, or 11.2 percent, of all men ages 20 years or older
11.5 million, or 10.2 percent, of all women ages 20 years or
older have diabetes.
>> Non-Hispanic whites:
14.9 million, or 9.8 percent, of
all non-Hispanic whites ages 20 years or older have diabetes.
>> Non-Hispanic blacks:
3.7 million, or 14.7 percent, of all non-Hispanic blacks ages 20
years or older have diabetes.
Diabetes to Increase with Aging
Diabetes prevalence in the United
States is likely to increase for several reasons. First, a large
segment of the population is aging.
National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases