Girls Born in 2009 Face Shorter Lives Than Their Mothers, Blacks Increase Longevity Most
New study of longevity looks at U.S. counties, geographic influence; finds wide variance in how long people will live in
20, 2012 -
Nationwide, women’s lifespans are improving at a much slower pace than men, and in hundreds of counties women are living shorter lives today
than they did two decades ago, according to new county-by-county estimates of life expectancy released yesterday by the Institute for Health
Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).
The new data also show that life expectancy for black Americans – both men and women – is improving at a faster rate than
for white Americans, especially in large urban areas in New York and California.
Nationwide, whether urban or rural, the gaps in health outcomes are growing, Dr. Ali Mokdad, the head of IHME’s US County
Performance research team, told a crowd of health reporters and researchers at the Association of Health Care Journalists conference yesterday
“It’s tragic that in a country as wealthy as the United States and with all the medical expertise we have that so many
girls will live shorter lives than their mothers,” Mokdad said.
IHME analyzed new mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 1989 to 2009. The national highlights are –
● Across US counties, life expectancy in 2009 ranged from 66.1 to 81.6 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women.
● From 1989 to 2009, life expectancy for men improved by 4.6 years on average but only by 2.7 years for women.
● And throughout the country, women were more likely than men to have no progress in life expectancy or to have their
lifespans get shorter over time.
● In 661 counties, life expectancy stopped dead or went backwards for women since 1999.
● By comparison, life expectancy for men stopped or reversed in 166 counties. This troubling trend is occurring in 84%
of Oklahoma counties, 58% of Tennessee counties, and 33% of Georgia counties.
● The gap between women living the longest lives and those living the shortest lives is growing, too. In Collier,
Florida, women live 85.8 years on average. In McDowell, West Virginia, they live to be 74.1. That’s an 11.7-year gap. In 1989, the gap was 8.7
years. For men, the gap is larger – 15.5 years – but it has grown by less than a year since 1989. Men live the longest in Marin, California,
at 81.6 years. They live the shortest lives on average in Quitman and Tunica, Mississippi, at 66.1.
● The range of life expectancies is so broad that in some counties, such as Stearns, Minnesota, lifespans rival some
of the places where people live the longest – Japan, Hong Kong, and France – while in other counties, life expectancies are lower than places
that spend far less on health care – Egypt, Indonesia, and Colombia.
● Even within states, there are large disparities. Women in Fairfax, Virginia, have among the best life expectancies
in the world at 84.1 years, while in Sussex, Virginia, they have among the worst at 75.9 years.
● At the same time, the life expectancy gap between black Americans and white Americans is closing. In 1989, black men
could expect to live to be 63.8 on average, while white men had an average lifespan of 72.5, a difference of 8.7 years. In 2009, black male
life expectancy improved by nearly a decade to 71.2 years, and white male life expectancy improved at a slower rate to 76.7 years, a 5.5-year
gap. The gap between black women and white women is even narrower: 3.6 years. Black women on average in 2009 had a life expectancy of 77.9
years, compared to 81.5 years for white women.
● IHME’s research shows that the biggest drivers of health disparities nationwide are preventable causes of death,
including tobacco, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, and alcohol.
● IHME found that a larger percentage of women than men had inadequately treated high blood pressure and high
cholesterol. Researchers also found differences in the way preventable risk factors for early mortality affected the sexes. An estimated
54,000 women’s lives could be saved annually by simply reducing salt consumption.
In order to better target local solutions to health disparities, IHME is pioneering new methods of harnessing existing
data and gathering new data in a partnership with Public Health - Seattle & King County. The Monitoring Disparities in Chronic Conditions
Study, one of the largest population surveillance projects in modern history, tracks disparities in diabetes, heart disease, and other
conditions at the local level.
The study captures socioeconomic and health risk factors and the resulting hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and
adherence to treatments. “What makes the difference is getting the right medication at the right dose,” Mokdad said. “We screen people for
diseases but don’t always follow through to manage the diseases.”
The county-level estimates of life expectancy are part of IHME’s broader effort to provide researchers and policymakers
with more accurate analysis of mortality and disease burden globally, nationally, and locally. IHME is the lead institution on the ambitious
Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 Study (GBD), which will provide the first comprehensive assessment of health status
internationally since the original GBD publication in 1996.
“Life expectancy by county is just one of the many factors we’re going to be able to map and track with the tools we have
developed for GBD,” said Dr. Christopher Murray, IHME Director. “We will be able to go into countries and examine at the very local level why
some people are so much healthier than others.”
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
is an independent global health research center at the University of Washington. It reports it provides rigorous and comparable measurement of
the world's most important health problems and evaluates the strategies used to address them. IHME makes this information freely available so
that policymakers have the evidence they need to make informed decisions about how to allocate resources to best improve population health.
For more information about IHME, visit:
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